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Astaxanthin



Interactions

Astaxanthin/Drug Interactions:
  • 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors: In vitro, astaxanthin demonstrated 5-alpha-reductase inhibitory effects, inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (31). The effects of concurrent use are unknown.
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: XancorT, a synthetic astaxanthin derivative, was not found to affect platelet, coagulation, or fibrinolytic indices in aspirin-naïve and aspirin-treated subjects in vitro (52).
  • Antidiabetic agentsAntidiabetic agents: According to a review, research has shown that hyperglycemia may induce oxidative stress, which may cause beta-cell dysfunction and pancreatic tissue damage (14). Based on mechanism of action, theoretically, astaxanthin may play a role in protecting against diabetes.
  • AntihypertensivesAntihypertensives: According to an animal study, astaxanthin may decrease blood pressure (34).
  • Calcium saltsCalcium salts: According to in vivo research, astaxanthin may lower serum calcium levels (94).
  • Cardiovascular agentsCardiovascular agents: Laboratory studies and clinical reviews have reported that astaxanthin may protect against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease (35; 69; 53; 45; 49). Experimental studies have found that oral and parenteral administration of astaxanthin offers cardioprotective effects (45; 49).
  • Cytochrome P450-metabolized drugsCytochrome P450-metabolized drugs: According to an animal study and clinical review, astaxanthin is a potent inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, particularly CYP 3A4 and CYP2B6 enzymes (95; 14).
  • Hormonal agentsHormonal agents: In vitro, astaxanthin demonstrated 5-alpha-reductase inhibitory effects, inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (31).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: The immune-stimulating effects of astaxanthin have been well documented (58; 59; 60; 61; 6; 29; 62; 63; 57). In laboratory studies, astaxanthin has been shown to enhance immunoglobulin (Ig) production and modulate the secretion of cytokines (59; 29; 62; 63; 47; 57). Although astaxanthin has been found to stimulate the immune system, in clinical research, astaxanthin was found to lower eosinophil levels (94).
  • RofecoxibRofecoxib: In laboratory research, when astaxanthin was added to rofecoxib (Vioxx®, currently off the U.S. market), lipid peroxidation was completely inhibited (84).

Astaxanthin/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: XancorT, a synthetic astaxanthin derivative, was not found to affect platelet, coagulation, or fibrinolytic indices in aspirin-naïve and aspirin-treated subjects in vitro (52).
  • CalciumCalcium: According to in vivo research, astaxanthin may lower serum calcium levels (94).
  • Cardiovascular agentsCardiovascular agents: Laboratory studies and clinical reviews have reported that astaxanthin may protect against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease (35; 69; 53; 45; 49). Experimental studies have found that oral and parenteral administration of astaxanthin offers cardioprotective effects (45; 49).
  • CarotenoidsCarotenoids: In animal research, astaxanthin was found to competitively inhibit beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase in the small intestine mucosa, thereby altering beta-carotene conversion (96; 97).
  • Cytochrome P450-metabolizedherbs/supplementsCytochrome P450-metabolizedherbs/supplements: According to an animal study and clinical review, astaxanthin is a potent inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, particularly CYP 3A4 and CYP2B6 enzymes (95; 14).
  • Hormonal herbs and supplementsHormonal herbs and supplements: In vitro, astaxanthin demonstrated 5-alpha-reductase inhibitory effects, inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (31).
  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: According to a review, research has shown that hyperglycemia may induce oxidative stress, which may cause beta-cell dysfunction and pancreatic tissue damage (14). Based on mechanism of action, theoretically, astaxanthin may play a role in protecting against diabetes.
  • HypotensivesHypotensives: According to an animal study, astaxanthin may decrease blood pressure (34).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: The immune-stimulating effects of astaxanthin have been well documented (58; 59; 60; 61; 6; 29; 62; 63; 57). In laboratory studies, astaxanthin has been shown to enhance immunoglobulin (Ig) production and modulate the secretion of cytokines (59; 29; 62; 63; 47; 57). Although astaxanthin has been found to stimulate the immune system, in clinical research, astaxanthin was found to lower eosinophil levels (94).
  • Saw palmettoSaw palmetto: In vitro, astaxanthin demonstrated 5-alpha-reductase inhibitory effects, inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (31). This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of astaxanthin alone, saw palmetto berry lipid extract alone, and a combination of astaxanthin and saw palmetto berry lipid extract. Astaxanthin demonstrated 98% inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase at 300mcg/mL. Further, the combination of astaxanthin and the saw palmetto berry lipid extract demonstrated 20% greater inhibition than saw palmetto berry lipid extract alone.

Astaxanthin/Food Interactions:
  • Calcium-containing foodsCalcium-containing foods: According to in vivo research, astaxanthin may lower serum calcium levels (94).
  • Carotenoid-containing foodsCarotenoid-containing foods: In animal research, astaxanthin was found to competitively inhibit beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase in the small intestine mucosa, thereby altering beta-carotene conversion (96; 97).

Astaxanthin/Lab Interactions:
  • AdiponectinAdiponectin: In human research, 12 and 18mg daily doses of astaxanthin increased serum adiponectin (102).
  • Body weightBody weight: In obese mice fed a high-fat diet, supplementation with astaxanthin reduced body weight (82).
  • Calcium levelsCalcium levels: According to in vivo research, astaxanthin may lower serum calcium levels (94).
  • CD4/CD8 countsCD4/CD8 counts: In patients treated with astaxanthin for functional dyspepsia, an upregulation of CD4 and a downregulation of CD8 was observed (100).
  • C-reactive proteinC-reactive protein: In human research, astaxanthin supplementation reduced plasma C-reactive protein concentration (57).
  • DNA damage biomarker (plasma 8-OHdG)DNA damage biomarker (plasma 8-OHdG): In human research, astaxanthin supplementation reduced the DNA damage biomarker (plasma 8-OHdG) (57).
  • Hormone levelsHormone levels: According to in vitro data that astaxanthin may inhibit 5-alpha-reductase, dihydrotestosterone and testosterone levels may be decreased, and estradiol levels may possibly increase (31).
  • Immune function testsImmune function tests: In laboratory research, astaxanthin was found to inhibit the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6) and suppress nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappaB (47). Various studies have shown that astaxanthin may enhance immune function (58; 59; 60; 61; 6; 29; 62; 63; 57). In laboratory and animal studies, astaxanthin has been found to modulate T-dependent antibody responses (62; 63) and T-dependent humoral immune responses (59; 29).
  • Inhibin BInhibin B: Astaxanthin supplementation decreased inhibin B in infertile men (104).
  • Lipid profileLipid profile: Preliminary in vitro and ex vivo evidence suggests that astaxanthin may inhibit LDL oxidation, which correlates with lipid profile (69). In patients with dyslipidemia, astaxanthin daily doses of 6, 12, and 18mg significantly reduced triglycerides and increased HDL cholesterol (102). Reductions in liver triglyceride, plasma triglyceride, and total cholesterol have been noted in animal studies (81; 82).
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS)Reactive oxygen species (ROS): In human research, astaxanthin supplementation decreased ROS (104; 57).
  • Sperm motilitySperm motility: Astaxanthin supplementation improved sperm motility in infertile men (104).
  • White blood cell count (eosinophil)White blood cell count (eosinophil): According to a clinical study, astaxanthin may decrease eosinophil levels (94).

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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